A Few Facts About Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

HPV is the shortened name for human Papillomavirus which consists of more than 150 virus’ strains. A number is given to each HPV virus to identify its type and named after the papillomas or warts that are caused by some HPV types. There are some HPV types that can cause cervical cancer and other cancers. Infection of the genital areas of men and women are caused by more than 40 types of HPV. However, there are available vaccines that can protect against infection from the most common HPV types.

Close skin-to-skin contact can transmit HPV. Someone infected with the virus can infect you with HPV through oral, vaginal, and anal sex. It is through anal or vaginal sex that the infection gets commonly spread. The most common STI or sexually transmitted infection is HPV. It is so common that almost every sexually active individual has been infected with it even when they were unaware of the infection.

HPV can affect the moist membranes and skin of the body including

  • The anus
  • The lining of the throat and mouth
  • The vagina
  • The vulva
  • The cervix

Changes in the cells in the lining of the throat and mouth and of the cervix can be developed by some HPV types. These are classified as HPVs that causes high-risk health problems. The cell changes are called dysplasia which has a high-level risk of turning cancerous.

Verrucas and warts are caused by other HPV types. The HPV types 6 and 11 are oftentimes called the genital wart virus or the wart virus. The genital areas, particularly around the anus, and the feet and hands are the common spots for the growth of verrucas and warts. They can also be found on any area of the body. The verrucas and warts HPV types are referred to as low risk as they seldom develop changes in the cell which could cause cancer.

Skin contact with an infected person can transmit the HPV type that affects the skin. Sexual activity such as oral sex and open mouth kissing can be infected with the HPV type that affects the throat and mouth. During sex where close contact skin-to-skin happens is also the way to get a genital HPV infection. Multiple sex partners increase the risk for getting infected with HPV.

Genital HPV can infect a person for a long time without showing any signs or symptoms. A cervical screening showing you have the virus may make you think that your life long partner has been unfaithful and given you the infection. Acquiring HPV does not mean that your partner or you have been unfaithful. There is no way of finding out the exact time you’ve had the virus which you or your partner could have acquired in past relationships years ago.

Cervical screening done on a regular basis will be the best protection against HPV types that causes cancer. The screening will be able to detect abnormal cell changes before they turn cancerous. Cervical screening is more important for women who have low or weak immune systems that may be the result of medications for another health condition.

Hepatitis: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

An inflammation or swelling of the liver is a medical condition called hepatitis.


Hepatitis can be developed by:

  • Medication overuse such as over dosage intake of acetaminophen or other drugs
  • Liver being attacked by the immune cells in the body
  • Liver damage from poison or alcohol
  • Infections from other viruses such as hepatitis C, A, or B, parasites or bacteria

Inherited disorders such as hemochromatosis, which is a condition that holds too much iron in the body or cystic fibrosis, can also cause liver disease. Another disorder that can lead to liver disease is Wilson’s disease wherein too much copper is retained in the body.


Hepatitis may begin and heal quickly. It may also turn into a chronic condition that will stay with you forever. Liver cancer, liver damage, and liver failure are some of the cases that are caused by hepatitis.

Usually, it is hepatitis A that has a shorter term and does not develop into chronic liver conditions. However, it should be noted that if you have existing illnesses including the ones that may have caused some damage to the liver, acquiring hepatitis may give additional severe health conditions.

Some of the symptoms of hepatitis may include:

  • Weight loss
  • Bloating or pain in the abdominal area
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Clay-colored or pale stools and dark urine
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Low fever
  • Jaundice
  • Itching

When first infected with hepatitis B or C, you may not show any symptoms. It will still later lead to liver failure. Tests should always be done often if you have risks conditions for these two types of hepatitis.

Tests and examinations

A physical exam is needed to look for:

  • Jaundice or yellowing of the skin
  • Tender and enlarged liver
  • Ascites or fluid in the abdomen

Lab tests to monitor and diagnose the condition of the liver may include:

  • If fluid is present in the abdomen, a paracentesis is needed
  • Ultrasound of the abdominal area
  • Liver biopsy to check for damages in the liver
  • Autoimmune blood markers
  • Liver function tests
  • Diagnostic tests for Hepatitis A, B, or C


Options in a treatment program will be discussed with you by your health provider. Treatments will be varied, depending on the causes that led to the liver disease. If you have lost weight, a high-calorie diet may be recommended.


  • Liver cancer
  • Cirrhosis, which is permanent liver damage
  • Liver failure

Contacting a medical professional

Help must be immediately sought if you have these symptoms:

  • Delirious and confused
  • Have too much of medicines such as acetaminophen and showing symptoms for the overdose.
  • Have tarry or bloody stools
  • Vomit blood

The doctor also needs to be called if:

  • You have just come from a travel from Central America, Asia, South America, and Africa and now feel sick
  • You think you have been exposed to hepatitis A, B or C as you are showing the symptoms

Excessive vomiting cannot keep food in your stomach.

Know More About Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Once transmitted it quickly grows in the moist and warm areas of the body including:

  • Reproductive organs of women which include the uterus, fallopian tubes, and cervix
  • The urethra which is the tube that drains the urinary bladder of urine
  • Anus
  • Eyes
  • Vagina
  • Penis
  • Throat

Unprotected sex through the vagina, mouth, and anus transmit gonorrhea. People who have the greatest risk of infection are those who do not use a condom and have multiple sex partners. Protection against the infection can best be achieved with the use of a condom in every sexual activity, or abstinence or a monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner.

Signs and symptoms


It usually takes around two to five days after infection for symptoms to happen. However, there are some men who may never show symptoms while it may take several weeks for some men to develop symptoms.

For women, the developed symptoms may be related to other infections or milder in a form. Even without the presence of symptoms, the infected person is still highly contagious. This symptom-free occurrence is the cause of widespread infection because the infected people are unaware of the infection.

The first symptom to be noticed in men is often a painful or burning sensation when urinating. It may also include:

  • Recurring sore throat
  • Frequency of urination
  • Pain or swelling in the testicles
  • Green, white or yellow colored pus-like discharges from the penis
  • Redness or swelling at the penis’ opening

Gonorrhea symptoms in women may be tricky as it could be similar to bacterial or vaginal yeast infections. Symptoms may have the following:

  • Fever
  • Foul smelling discharges from the vagina
  • Pain in the lower abdominal area
  • Burning or painful urination
  • Painful sexual intercourse
  • Frequency of urination
  • Sore throat

If gonorrhea is left untreated, the infection may well spread to the bloodstream where the body may develop joint pains, rashes, and fever.


There are several ways a healthcare professional can diagnose gonorrhea. Vaginal or penis discharges will be taken as a specimen and exposed to a stain. The reaction of the cells to the stain would probably be gonorrhea. It is a quick and easy test but could not be termed reliable.

Another way is to take samples of vaginal and penile discharges and incubating it for a couple of days inside a special dish. A growth of gonorrhea bacteria will be the way to determine the infection.

It will take three days before final results can be determined. Some of the samples that can be taken from an infected person may include fluid from the joints, the throat, blood, vagina, anus or tip of the penis. A needle is inserted with the extraction of a small amount of specimen if joint fluid or blood is needed as samples.


Gonorrhea can mostly be cured through a regimen of modern antibiotics. However, there has been a development of new strains of gonorrhea that are resistant to common antibiotics. Extensive treatment is needed that may use antibiotic combinations.

Treatment for Chlamydia

One of the United States’ very common sexually transmitted diseases is Chlamydia. Since it is mostly asymptomatic, the infection gets passed to other partners as the infected person does not know that he or she is infected.

Being infected with Chlamydia would not be easy to say as it is mostly asymptomatic. If symptoms do happen it will only be noticed after a week or three weeks following infection and they may include:

Symptoms in women

  • Pain during urination
  • Odorous with abnormal amounts of vaginal discharges
  • Burning or itching around or in the vagina
  • Bleeding between menstrual periods
  • Painful sexual intercourse
  • Fever with abdominal pain
  • Painful cramps during menstruation


Symptoms in Men

  • Swelling and pain around the testicles
  • Cloudy or clear discharges from the penis’ tip
  • Itching and burning surrounding the penis’ opening
  • Pain during urination

Your doctor will use different tests to diagnose a Chlamydia infection. A swab will be used to take a sample from the cervix in women or urethra in men which will then be sent to be analyzed in the laboratory. Urine samples to see the presence of the Chlamydia bacteria can also be another form of test.


If tests are positive for Chlamydia oral antibiotics such as azithromycin or doxycycline will be prescribed by your doctor. He or she will also advise that the way to stop or contain re-infection is for your partner(s) to submit to an STD test and treatment.

The infection usually clears up after a week or two of treatment. Even if you feel better, the antibiotic therapy that was prescribed should be completed in order to eliminate Chlamydia from your system.

Severe infections of Chlamydia that usually occurs in women would need hospitalization. The treatment that will be done while confined in the hospital will be a combination of medicines for pain and antibiotics given intravenously.

Infected people must be re-tested after the prescribed antibiotic treatment has been consumed. This is to ensure that the infection has been cured. This is very important especially when you are not sure if your partner(s) underwent testing and treatment. The best way to avoid re-infection is to refrain from any sexual activity until you are sure that you and your partner are free of the disease.

Here are ways to remove the risk of being infected by Chlamydia:

  • Avoid sex and see your doctor if you feel that you have contracted Chlamydia.
  • Practice safe sex by using condoms every single time you have a sexual activity.
  • Practice abstinence from sex, or only have sexual relations with one uninfected partner.
  • Learn not to use multiple partners.

Discharges, an unusual rash or sore, or pain during urination should always be a signal to stop all sexual activity and to see your doctor as soon as possible. You have the responsibility of informing your partner(s) if you are tested positive for a Chlamydia infection. This will give them a chance to submit to a test and treatment.

Everything You Need To Know About Chlamydia

The bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes Chlamydia which is one of the most common sexually transmitted that affects people of all ages, particularly individuals aged below 25 years. It is also known as the ‘silent infection’ because most of the time people are unaware that they are infected.

A person can get infected by Chlamydia by having anal or vaginal sex with an infected individual.




Most women are unaware that they have been infected with Chlamydia because of the absence of signs or symptoms. It can cause PID or pelvic inflammation disease once the infection has reached the neck of the cervix and spread to the fallopian tubes and uterus. It could also lead to infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and ectopic pregnancy. An infected mother can pass the infection to her baby during birth which could cause eye or lung infections. The rectum can be infected which may cause bleeding, rectal pain or discharges.

If symptoms show, they could include:

  • Pain in the lower abdominal area
  • Unusual discharges from the vagina
  • Bleeding after sex or spotting or bleeding between periods
  • Pain or burning sensation during urination
  • Painful sexual intercourse


Chlamydia would be asymptomatic or show no symptoms in men. It can cause pain when the tube of the penis or urethra is infected which could reach the epididymis. The rectum can be infected which may cause bleeding, rectal pain or discharges.

If symptoms show, they can include:

  • Sore and swollen testicles
  • Discharges from the penis
  • Burning pain during urination


Chlamydia could easily be diagnosed with painless tests that normally use urine. A cotton swab test would be another alternative where specimens can be taken from the penis, vagina, anus or cervix and sent to the laboratory for analysis.


Having unprotected anal or vaginal sex with an infected person could get you infected with Chlamydia. Safe sex practices should always be done in every sexual activity such as using a condom or a dam which is made of thin latex that is fitted over the anus or vagina.

Many people are unaware they have the infection since Chlamydia does not often show signs and symptoms. Looking at the outward appearance of a person may not show that he or she is infected with Chlamydia even when they look healthy.

A new sex partner who may have an earlier partner infected with Chlamydia poses a high risk through unprotected sexual activity. A long-term partner could also infect you if he or she had unprotected sex with other infected people.


It is highly recommended that people under 25 years old and are sexually active should have annual check-ups for Chlamydia or other possible STDs. Chlamydia can infect any sexually active person at any age, more so when sex is unprotected and involves multiple partners.


A single dose of antibiotics can treat Chlamydia if it is detected early. A longer course of antibiotic treatment has to be done when Chlamydia complications have been developed such as PID or pelvic inflammatory disease.

If you are infected with Chlamydia, your sexual partner has to know so she or he can be tested and treated as they may have acquired the infection from you and could re-infect you after you have been treated.